01 中国文化概述

优秀民间艺术 outstanding folk arts
独特的艺术价值 unique artistic values
诚实守信 honesty
爱国主义精神 patriotism
国宝 national treasure
文物 cultural relics
华夏祖先 the Chinese ancestors
文人 men of letter
雅士 refined scholar
才子佳人 gifted scholars and beautiful ladies
高雅艺术 refined/high art
中外学者 Chinese and overseas scholars
古为今用 to make the past serve the present
洋为中用 to make the foreign serve China
无愧于时代的作品 works worthy of the times
文明摇篮 cradle of civilization
古文明 ancient civilization
博大精深 to be extensive and profound
享有……的声誉 to enjoy a good/high reputation for
被誉为 to be honored/crowned as
占据重要地位 to play a significant role; to have/ occupy a significant place
肩负……的责任 to shoulder the responsibility of...
与……密不可分 to be closely associated with…
推广中国文化 to promote Chinese culture
促进世界和平 to promote world peace
增进友谊 to enhance friendship
文化娱乐活动 cultural and amusement activities
文化产业 culture industry
文化底蕴 cultural deposit
文化事业 cultural undertaking
文化交流 cultural exchange
文化冲击 culture shock
文化差异 cultural difference
民族特性和价值观 national identity and value
在各地差异很大 to vary widely from region/place to region/place
促进文化的传播 to promote the spread of culture
促进交流 to promote exchanges
蓬勃发展 to flourish
丰富多彩 to be rich and colorful
风俗习惯 custom
禁忌 taboo
中华民族 the Chinese nation
传统美德 traditional virtues
尊敬老人 to respect the elderly
赡养父母 to support/take care of parents
继承 to inherit
后人 later generation
强身健体 to improve the physical health; to strengthen the body
益寿延年 to prolong life
保佑平安 to keep sb. safe
象征意义 symbolic meaning
象征好运和祝福 to symbolize good luck and blessings
审美观/品味 taste for beauty; aesthetic taste

02 中国传统文化

形状不一 to be of different shapes
材质各异 various materials
质地坚硬 hard texture
造型生动 vivid figure
色彩丰富 rich colors
风格独特 characteristic/unique style
中医药 traditional Chinese medicine
中草药 herbal medicine
望、闻、问、切 observing, listening, inquiring, pulse taking
症状 symptom
重大发明 a significant invention
中国古代四大发明 the four great inventions of ancient China
火药 gunpowder
造纸术 paper-making
指南针 the compass
文房四宝 the Four Treasures of the Study
笔、墨、纸、砚 brush, ink stick, paper, ink stone
汉字 Chinese character
笔划 stroke
普通话四声调 the four tones of Mandarin Chinese
书法 calligraphy
中国画 traditional Chinese painting
水墨画 Chinese brush painting; ink wash painting
武术 martial arts
中国功夫 Kung fu
太极 Tai Chi
孔子 Confucius
孟子 Mencius
思想学派 school of thought
思想核心 the core of ideology
代表人物 representative
儒家思想 Confucianism
儒家文化 Confucian culture
和尚、僧人 monk
寺庙 temple
建筑 architecture
钟楼 bell tower
鼓楼 drum tower
牌坊 memorial archway
兵马俑 Terracotta Warriors and Horses
丝绸之路 the Silk Road
故宫 the Imperial Palace
天坛 the Temple of Heaven
伊斯兰教 Islam
清真寺 mosque
宗教 religion
民间故事 folk tale
寓言 fable
传说 legend
凡间 human world
京剧 Peking Opera
脸谱 mask
正面角色 positive role
木偶戏 puppet show
皮影戏 shadow play
杂技 acrobatics
相声 crosstalk
说、学、逗、唱 speaking imitating, teasing and singing
说书 story-telling
刺绣 figure
瓷器 porcelain; china
陶器 pottery; earthenware
青铜器 bronze ware
雕刻 to carve
图章 seal

03 中国传统节日

元宵节 the Lantern Festival
清明节 the Tomb-sweeping Day
端午节 the Dragon Boat Festival
中秋节 the Mid-autumn Day/Festival
重阳节 the Double-ninth Day
七夕节 the Double-seventh Day
除夕 Chinese New Year's Eve
年夜饭 annual reunion dinner
拜年 to pay a new year call
探亲访友 to (pay a) visit to relatives and friends
亲朋好友 relatives and friends
大扫除 to thoroughly clean the house
驱厄运 to sweep away ill fortune; to get rid of bad luck
去除灾难 to ward off evils
发红包 to give money in red envelopes; to hand out red envelopes
欢度 the celebration of...; to celebrate
春联 spring couplets
庙会 temple fair
民间艺人 folk artists
祭神 god-worshiping
爆竹,烟火 firecracker; firework(s)
画 (traditional) new year picture
压岁钱 new year's gift-money
舞龙 dragon dance
花灯 festival lantern
灯谜 lantern riddle
有益的智力活动 beneficial intellectual activity
中国结 Chinese knot
舞狮 lion dance
赛龙舟 dragon boat race
赏月 to enjoy the full moon
登高 hill climbing
扫墓 to pay respects to the dead at sb.'s tomb

04 食物及烹饪方法

中国菜,中餐 Chinese cuisine
烹饪技巧 cooking technique

煎 to fry
炒 to stir-fry
炸 to deep-fry
烩/焖/炖 to stew
蒸 to steam
煮 to boil
烘焙 to bake
烤 to roast
切条 to cut to strips
切丁 to dice
切碎 to mince
磨碎 to grind
饮食习惯 dietary habit
特色食品 special food
元宵 sweet sticky rice dumplings
年糕 rice cake
油条 deep-fried dough sticks
豆浆 soybean milk
馒头 steamed bun
包子 steamed stuffed bun
拉面 hand-stretched noodles
豆腐 tofu; bean curd
麻花 fried dough twist
皮蛋 100-year egg; century egg
蛋炒饭 Fried rice with egg
火锅 hot pot
原料 ingredient
猪/牛肉丸 pork/beef ball
鸭肉 duck
蘑菇 mushroom
北京烤鸭 Beijing roast duck
素菜馆 vegetarian restaurant
白酒 Chinese Baijiu

05 中国历史

人类文明史 the history of human civilization
源远流长/历史悠久 to have a long history with a long history
朝代 dynasty
古都 ancient capital
随着时间的推移 as time goes by
远古时代 ancient times
原始社会 primitive society
春秋时期 the Spring and Autumn Period
战国 the Warring States
封建社会 feudal society
皇帝,君主 emperor; monarch
历史遗留问题 a question left over from history/the past
在战争中损毁 to be ruined in wars
抵抗侵略 to resist the invasion
五四运动 the May 4th Movement of 1919
在……世纪初 at the beginning of ... century
迄今为止 up till now
追溯到 to date/trace back to
来源于 to derive/stem from; to originate from/in
发祥地 birthplace
兴起于…,兴盛于… to emerge in … and prosper in
保存最完好的 best-preserved
原址 original site
国家博物馆 National Museum
皇帝统治时期 a period of emperor reign
诸侯国 kingdom
勤政爱民 to be diligent and love one’s people
退位 to give up the throne
帝王宫殿 imperial palace以……
命名 to be named after ...
历史人物 historic figure
阳历 solar calendar
阴历 lunar calendar
天干 heavenly stem
地支 earthly branch
闰年 leap year

06 中国经济

企业家 entrepreneur
经济全球化 economic globalization
区域性自由贸易区 regional free trade area
经济特区 special economic zone
计划经济 planned economy
市场经济 market economy
市场调节 market regulation
市场多元化 market diversification
推动经贸合作 to boost economic and trade cooperation
商界 business communities
互惠互利 mutual benefit
共同繁荣/富裕 common prosperity
总需求 aggregate/total demand
总供给 aggregate supply
供过于求 supply exceeding demand
扩大内需 to expand domestic demand
购买力 purchasing power
团购 group buying
财政预算 financial budget
耐用消费品 durable consumer goods
年末促销 year-end promotion
垄断 monopoly
垄断行业 monopoly industry
市场占有率 market share
生产力,生产率 productivity
经济增长放缓 economic slowdown
国有企业 state-owned enterprises (SOEs)
集体企业 collectively-owned (partnership) enterprises
私营企业 private businesses
民营企业 privately-run businesses
中小企业 small and medium-sized enterprises
民间资本 private capital
民间投资 private investment
泡沫经济 bubble economy
经济过热 overheating of the economy
通货膨胀 inflation
实体经济 the real economy
外汇储备充足 sufficient foreign exchange reserve
国内/国际贸易 domestic/international trade
对外贸易 foreign trade
贸易条件 terms of trade
不公平竞争 unfair competition
海关 customs
关税 customs duty
水货,走私货 smuggled goods
产品质量 product quality
高度评价 to speak highly of
物美价廉 competitive price and superior quality
销售,销售额 sales
存货,库存量 stocks
金融组织 financial institution
商业信誉 commercial reputation
管理机制 management mechanism
改善服务 to improve services
延长保修期 to extend maintenance
制造商,制造厂 manufacturer
原材料 raw material
样品 sample
大规模生产 mass production
年产量 annual output
劳动力密集型产业 labor-intensive industry
知识密集型产业 knowledge-intensive industry
工作歧视 discrimination in the workplace
高消耗、高投入 high consumption, high investment
沿袭……模式 to continue with the model of …
住房抵押贷款 residential mortgage loan
分期付款 to pay by installment
信贷紧缩 credit squeeze
取钱 to withdraw money
利率 interest rate
找工作 to hunt for a job; job hunting
招聘广告 the want ads
职位 position; post; job vacancy/opening
求职信 application letter
工作简历 job resume; CV
填写申请表 to fill in/out the applicati

07 旅游交通

名胜古迹 places of interests
避暑胜地 summer resort
森林公园 forest park
自然保护区 nature reserve
自然景观 natural scenery
人文景观 human landscape
壮丽河山 magnificent scenery
古典山水园林 classical landscape garden
皇家园林 royal garden
中外游客 tourists from home and abroad
游乐园 amusement park
度假 to take a vacation; to go on holiday
门票 (entrance) ticket
免费景区电子门票 free sightseeing e-coupon
星级酒店 star-rated hotel
高峰期 rush hour
人山人海,人满为患 overcrowded; to be packed with overcrowded people
翻山越岭 to climb mountains and hills
受到……的热烈欢迎 to be warmly welcomed by …
丰富知识 to enrich one’s knowledge
开阔视野 to broaden one’s horizon
扩大知识面 to enlarge the scope of knowledge
培养独立性 to cultivate independence
运输工具 means of transportation
公共交通 public transport
地铁站 subway station
候车室 waiting room
扣分处罚 point penalty
酒驾 drunk driving
终身禁驾 lifetime ban from driving
护照 passport
签证有效期 validity of visa
散客 individual visitor
团体游客 group visitor

08 地理环境

西部地区 western regions
省会 provincial capital
水域面积 water area
三面环山 to be surrounded by mountains on three sides
全长……公里 to stretch for ... km/kilometers
面貌焕然一新 to take on a completely new look
高原 plateau
山峰 peak
淡水湖 freshwater lake
沿海港口 coastal port
植物园 botanical garden
气候 climate
环境保护 environmental protection
提高全民环保意识 raise environmental awareness amongst the general public
环保产品 environment-friendly product
一次性产品 disposable product
开发可再生资源 to develop renewable resources
高能耗产业 energy-intensive industry
可持续发展 sustainable development
生态环境 the ecological environment
温室效应 greenhouse effect
污染物 pollutant
水土保持 water and soil conservation
降雨量 rainfall
物种灭绝 the extinction of bio-species
先污染后治理 to exert control after pollution
碳减排 carbon emission reduction
温室气体排放 greenhouse gas emission
二氧化碳 carbon dioxide
新能源汽车 green car
废气 exhaust gas
汽车尾气排放 motor vehicle exhaust
发动机排量 engine displacement
零排放车辆 zero-emission vehicle
小排量汽车 small-displacement car
能源消耗 depletion of resources
能源危机 energy crisis
回收利用 to recycle
低碳城市化道路 way to low-carbon urbanization
城市化 urbanization
濒临灭绝/失传 to be on the verge of extinction/loss
濒危物种 endangered species
稀有物种 rare species
防护林带 shelter belt
森林覆盖率 forest coverage rate
改善土壤 soil improvement
地质灾害 geological disaster
灾难 catastrophe; tragedy; disaster
不幸 misfortune
伤亡人员 casualty
死亡人数 death toll
台风 typhoon
火山爆发 volcanic eruption
地震 earthquake
洪水 flood
干旱 drought

09 教育

高等教育 higher education
象牙塔 ivory tower
正规院校 regular universities and colleges
军校 military academy
九年义务教育 nine-year compulsory education
学前教育 preschool education
失学儿童 dropout
文盲 illiteracy; illiterate
受过良好教育的 well-educated
入学率 enrollment rate
适龄儿童 school-age children
高考 college entrance examination
考研 take the entrance exams for postgraduate
读研 attend graduate school
毕业典礼 graduation ceremony
毕业鉴定 graduation appraisal
毕业论文 graduation dissertation/thesis
毕业实习 graduation field work
授予学位 confer an academic degree on sb.
博士学位 doctor’s degree
硕士学位 master’s degree
学士学位 bachelor’s degree
在职博士生 on-job doctorate
研究生毕业证/学位证 graduate diploma/graduate degree’s diploma
中专生 secondary specialized student
在校大学生 undergraduate
中小学 elementary/primary and middle/secondary schools
扩招 scale expansion
扩大招生人数 enlarge school enrollment
走读生 non-resident student
住校生 boarder
课外活动 extracurricular activity
必修课 required/compulsory course
选修课 elective/optional course
基础课 basic course
专业课 specialized course
专业知识 specialized knowledge/expertise
开设课程 offer a course
课程表 school schedule
教学大纲 teaching program; syllabus
学分制 credit system
补考 make-up examination
学年 school year
师资力量 teaching faculty
应试教育 exam-oriented education system
推进素质教育 push ahead with education for all-around development
基本实现教育现代化 basically modernize education
招生就业指导 enrollment and vocation guidance
竞争激烈 fierce competition
评价体系 evaluation system
选拔官员/人才 select officials/talents

10 科技

在线社区 online community
航天飞机 shuttle
社交模式 social networking
探测器 detector
搜索引擎 search engine
信息时代 information age
网民 netizen
信息爆炸 information explosion
活跃用户 active user
高科技产品 high-tech product
对…上瘾 be /get addicted to...
电子设备 electronic device
计算机病毒 computer virus
智能手机 smart phone; intelligent handset
虚拟世界 virtual world
创新 innovation
网上购物 online shopping
研发 research and development
电子商务 e-commerce
核心技术 core technology
消费理念 consumption concept
电讯 telecommunication
大众媒体 mass media
硬件 hardware
电子版 electronic version
软件 software
娱乐资讯 entertainment information
网上冲浪 surf on the Internet
在线娱乐online entertainment
网页浏览 web browsing
当地新闻 local news
即时消息 instant message
简讯 brief news
视频电话 videophone
获取信息 obtain information
文件传输 document transmission
收视率 audience rating


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